Reported speech (Direct Speech and Indirect Speech)

Reported speech

(Direct Speech and Indirect Speech)

        I.            Definition.

Is an indirect sentence to report back greeting speech delivered in a different speaker. Reportd speech also called Direct speech or Indirect Speech reserve the sentence pronounced by the speaker directly.

Example           :

D          : He said to her, “I will visit you tomorrow”.

I           : He said to her (that) He would visit her the following day.

      II.            Adverbial of Time and Place Changed.


Now                             : Then

Today                           : That day

Tonight                         : The night

Tomorrow                      :The following day / next day

Yesterday                     :The day before

Next week                    : The following week

Last night                      : The night before

Here                             : There

This                              : That


    III.            Rules.


  1. If the main clause of  “present” the tense of the sub-clause does not change.

Example           :

            D          : He says to her, “ I work hard “.

            I           : He says to her that he works hard.


  1. If the main clause of “past” the tense of the sub clause changed.

Example           :

            D          : He said to her, “I work hard”.

            I           : He said to her that he worked hard.

  1. If the sub clause of  ‘general truth’, tenses in any form will not affect the main caluse change tenses in indirect speech

Example           :

            D          : Father said to Any, “the sun raises in the East every morning.”

            I           : Father told to Ani that the sun rises in the east every morning.

  1. If the clause in the form of Direct Speech for the simple past tense, it does not change in Indirect Speech, but the parent sentence remains unchanged.

Example           :

            D          : Andy said, “My sister was crying when I went home.”

            I           : Andy told me that his sister had been crying when He went home.


    IV.            Establishment of Reported Speech.


1)       Statement.

The conjunction is “That”.

Example           :

D          : He says to me, “ I need You.”

I           : He says to me that He needs me.

D          : She said to him, “We are Happy.”

I           : She said to him that They were Happy.

2)       Questions.

a)       Yes/No Questions.

If a question directly using the Yes / No Questions If the connecting / Weather does.

Example           :

D          : You asked me,”Will You visit me…???.”

I           : You asked me If/Weather I would visit You.

D          : He asked her,”Have You done your homework,,,???.”

I           : He asked her If She had done her homework.

b)       Question Word.

If a question using the question word is the question word is used as a link in reported speech, and question into a sentence news reported.

Example           :

D : Jane asked Mike, “what are you doing here?”

I : Jane asked Mike what he was doing there.

D :Bob asked me, “where do you live?”

I : Bob asked me where I lived.

3)        Command / Perintah.

Command is divided into two, namely “verbal and nominal” are each divided into “positive / command” and “negative / ban.”

Formula            :

Verbal : (+) Command                     : To + V-1

(-) Prohibition                   : Not + to +V-1




                           Example         :

                           (+) D : He said to her, “close the door.”

                                 I   : He asked her to close the door.           

                           (-) D   : Tomy asked Tina, “Don’t cry.”

                        I           : Tomy asked Tina not to cry.



Nominal : (+) Command                  : To + be + comp.

(-) Prohibition                   : Not + to+ be + comp.



Example     :

                             (+)   D          : Mother asked me, “be careful please!”

      I           : Mother asked me to be careful.

(-)   D          : Mother asked Ross, “don’t be lazy”

      I           : Mother asked Ross, not be lazy.

4)         Exclamation Sentence/ Exclamation

Exclamation to express something. Connecting words in this sentence is adapted to the context of the sentence were reported.

               Example         :

                           D       : He said to me, “thank you”

                           I         : He thanked me.

                           D       : John said to me, “hello how are you?”

               I         : Jhon greeted me and asked how I was.

                           D       : He said, “Happy birthday to you”.

                           I         : He wished me a happy birthday.


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