(Direct Speech and Indirect Speech)
Is an indirect sentence to report back greeting speech delivered in a different speaker. Reportd speech also called Direct speech or Indirect Speech reserve the sentence pronounced by the speaker directly.
D : He said to her, “I will visit you tomorrow”.
I : He said to her (that) He would visit her the following day.
II. Adverbial of Time and Place Changed.
Now : Then
Today : That day
Tonight : The night
Tomorrow :The following day / next day
Yesterday :The day before
Next week : The following week
Last night : The night before
Here : There
This : That
- If the main clause of “present” the tense of the sub-clause does not change.
D : He says to her, “ I work hard “.
I : He says to her that he works hard.
- If the main clause of “past” the tense of the sub clause changed.
D : He said to her, “I work hard”.
I : He said to her that he worked hard.
- If the sub clause of ‘general truth’, tenses in any form will not affect the main caluse change tenses in indirect speech
D : Father said to Any, “the sun raises in the East every morning.”
I : Father told to Ani that the sun rises in the east every morning.
- If the clause in the form of Direct Speech for the simple past tense, it does not change in Indirect Speech, but the parent sentence remains unchanged.
D : Andy said, “My sister was crying when I went home.”
I : Andy told me that his sister had been crying when He went home.
IV. Establishment of Reported Speech.
The conjunction is “That”.
D : He says to me, “ I need You.”
I : He says to me that He needs me.
D : She said to him, “We are Happy.”
I : She said to him that They were Happy.
a) Yes/No Questions.
If a question directly using the Yes / No Questions If the connecting / Weather does.
D : You asked me,”Will You visit me…???.”
I : You asked me If/Weather I would visit You.
D : He asked her,”Have You done your homework,,,???.”
I : He asked her If She had done her homework.
b) Question Word.
If a question using the question word is the question word is used as a link in reported speech, and question into a sentence news reported.
D : Jane asked Mike, “what are you doing here?”
I : Jane asked Mike what he was doing there.
D :Bob asked me, “where do you live?”
I : Bob asked me where I lived.
3) Command / Perintah.
Command is divided into two, namely “verbal and nominal” are each divided into “positive / command” and “negative / ban.”
Verbal : (+) Command : To + V-1
(-) Prohibition : Not + to +V-1
(+) D : He said to her, “close the door.”
I : He asked her to close the door.
(-) D : Tomy asked Tina, “Don’t cry.”
I : Tomy asked Tina not to cry.
Nominal : (+) Command : To + be + comp.
(-) Prohibition : Not + to+ be + comp.
(+) D : Mother asked me, “be careful please!”
I : Mother asked me to be careful.
(-) D : Mother asked Ross, “don’t be lazy”
I : Mother asked Ross, not be lazy.
4) Exclamation Sentence/ Exclamation
Exclamation to express something. Connecting words in this sentence is adapted to the context of the sentence were reported.
D : He said to me, “thank you”
I : He thanked me.
D : John said to me, “hello how are you?”
I : Jhon greeted me and asked how I was.
D : He said, “Happy birthday to you”.
I : He wished me a happy birthday.